Finding All Beans with a Custom Annotation – 用自定义注释找到所有豆子

最后修改: 2022年 5月 4日

1. Overview


In this tutorial, we’ll explain how to find all beans annotated with a custom annotation in Spring. We’ll show different methods depending on the Spring version we use.


2. With Spring Boot 2.2 or Later

2.使用Spring Boot 2.2或更高版本

Since Spring Boot 2.2, we can use the getBeansWithAnnotation method.

从Spring Boot 2.2开始,我们可以使用getBeansWithAnnotationmethod

Let’s build an example. First, we’ll define our custom annotation. Let’s annotate it with @Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME) to make sure the annotation can be accessed by the program during runtime:


@Retention( RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME )
public @interface MyCustomAnnotation {


Now, let’s define a first bean annotated with our annotation. We’ll also annotate it with @Component:


public class MyComponent {


Then, let’s define another bean annotated with our annotation. However, this time we’ll create it thanks to a @Bean annotated method in a @Configuration file:


public class MyService {


public class MyConfigurationBean {

    MyService myService() {
        return new MyService();

Now, let’s write a test to check that the getBeansWithAnnotation method can detect both of our beans:


void whenApplicationContextStarted_ThenShouldDetectAllAnnotatedBeans() {
    try (AnnotationConfigApplicationContext applicationContext = new AnnotationConfigApplicationContext( MyComponent.class, MyConfigurationBean.class )) {
        Map<String,Object> beans = applicationContext.getBeansWithAnnotation(MyCustomAnnotation.class);
        assertEquals(2, beans.size());
        assertTrue(beans.keySet().containsAll(List.of("myComponent", "myService")));

3. With an Older Spring Version


3.1. Historical Context


In Spring Framework versions prior to 5.2, the getBeansWithAnnotation method would only detect beans annotated at the class or interface level but was not able to detect the beans annotated at the factory method level.

在5.2之前的Spring Framework版本中,getBeansWithAnnotation方法只能检测到在类或接口级别注释的Bean,但无法检测在工厂方法级别注释的Bean。

Spring Framework dependency has been upgraded to 5.2 in Spring Boot 2.2, so that’s why with older versions of Spring, the test we have just written would fail:

在Spring Boot 2.2中,Spring框架的依赖性已经升级到了5.2,所以这就是为什么在旧版本的Spring中,我们刚才写的测试会失败。

  • the MyComponent bean is correctly detected because the annotation is at the class level
  • the MyService bean is not detected because it’s created through a factory method

Let’s see how we can get around this behavior.


3.2. Decorate Our Custom Annotation with @Qualifier


There’s a rather straightforward workaround: We can simply decorate our annotation with @Qualifier.


Our annotation will then look like:


@Retention( RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME )
public @interface MyCustomAnnotation {


Now, we’re able to auto-wire both annotated beans. Let’s check that out with a test:


private List<Object> annotatedBeans;

void whenAutowiring_ThenShouldDetectAllAnnotatedBeans() {
    assertEquals(2, annotatedBeans.size());
    List<String> classNames =
        .map(s -> s.substring(s.lastIndexOf(".") + 1))
    assertTrue(classNames.containsAll(List.of("MyComponent", "MyService")));

This workaround is the simplest, however, it might not fit our needs, for instance, if we don’t own the annotation.


Let’s also note that decorating our custom annotation with @Qualifier will turn it into a Spring qualifier.


3.3. Listing the Beans Created via a Factory Method


Now that we’ve understood that the problem mainly arises with beans created via factory methods, let’s focus on how to list only those. We’ll present a solution that functions in all cases without implying any change to our custom annotation. We’ll use reflection to access the beans’ annotations.


Given that we have access to the Spring ApplicationContext, we’ll follow a series of steps:

鉴于我们可以访问Spring ApplicationContext,我们将遵循一系列的步骤。

  • Access the BeanFactory
  • Look up the BeanDefinition associated with each bean
  • Check if the source of the BeanDefinition is an AnnotatedTypeMetadata, which means we’ll be able to access the annotations of the bean
  • If the bean has annotations, check if the desired annotation is among them

Let’s create our own BeanUtils utility class and implement this logic inside a method:


public class BeanUtils {

    public static List<String> getBeansWithAnnotation(GenericApplicationContext applicationContext, Class<?> annotationClass) {
        List<String> result = new ArrayList<String>();
        ConfigurableListableBeanFactory factory = applicationContext.getBeanFactory();
        for(String name : factory.getBeanDefinitionNames()) {
            BeanDefinition bd = factory.getBeanDefinition(name);
            if(bd.getSource() instanceof AnnotatedTypeMetadata) {
                AnnotatedTypeMetadata metadata = (AnnotatedTypeMetadata) bd.getSource();
                if (metadata.getAnnotationAttributes(annotationClass.getName()) != null) {
        return result;

Alternatively, we could also write the same function using Streams:


public static List<String> getBeansWithAnnotation(GenericApplicationContext applicationContext, Class<?> annotationClass) {
    ConfigurableListableBeanFactory factory = applicationContext.getBeanFactory();
        .filter(name -> isAnnotated(factory, name, annotationClass))

private static boolean isAnnotated(ConfigurableListableBeanFactory factory, String beanName, Class<?> annotationClass) {
    BeanDefinition beanDefinition = factory.getBeanDefinition(beanName);
    if(beanDefinition.getSource() instanceof AnnotatedTypeMetadata) {
        AnnotatedTypeMetadata metadata = (AnnotatedTypeMetadata) beanDefinition.getSource();
        return metadata.getAnnotationAttributes(annotationClass.getName()) != null;
    return false;

In these methods, we’ve used a GenericApplicationContext, which is an implementation of Spring ApplicationContext that doesn’t assume a specific bean definition format.

在这些方法中,我们使用了GenericApplicationContext,它是Spring ApplicationContext的一个实现,它不假定特定的bean定义格式。

To have access to the GenericApplicationContext, we can, for instance, inject it into a Spring component:


public class AnnotatedBeansComponent {

    GenericApplicationContext applicationContext;
    public List<String> getBeansWithAnnotation(Class<?> annotationClass) {
        return BeanUtils.getBeansWithAnnotation(applicationContext, annotationClass);

4. Conclusion


In this article, we’ve discussed how to list the beans annotated with a given annotation. We’ve seen that since Spring Boot 2.2, this is done naturally by the getBeansWithAnnotation method.

在这篇文章中,我们讨论了如何列出带有给定注解的Bean。我们看到,从Spring Boot 2.2开始,这一点可以通过getBeansWithAnnotation方法自然完成。

On the other hand, we’ve shown some alternative methods to overcome the limits of the previous behavior of this method: either by only adding @Qualifier on top of our annotation or by looking up the beans, using reflection to check whether they have the annotation or not.


As always, the complete code is available over on GitHub.