Shutdown a Spring Boot Application – 关闭一个Spring Boot应用程序

最后修改: 2018年 4月 3日

1. Overview


Managing the lifecycle of Spring Boot Application is very important for a production-ready system. The Spring container handles the creation, initialization, and destruction of all the Beans with the help of the ApplicationContext.

管理Spring Boot应用程序的生命周期对于一个可以投入生产的系统来说是非常重要的。Spring容器在ApplicationContext.的帮助下处理所有Bean的创建、初始化和销毁。

The emphasize of this write-up is the destruction phase of the lifecycle. More specifically, we’ll have a look at different ways to shut down a Spring Boot Application.

本篇文章的重点是生命周期的销毁阶段。更具体地说,我们将看看关闭Spring Boot应用程序的不同方法。

To learn more about how to set up a project using Spring Boot, check out the Spring Boot Starter article, or go over the Spring Boot Configuration.

要了解有关如何使用Spring Boot设置项目的更多信息,请查看Spring Boot Starter文章,或翻阅Spring Boot配置

2. Shutdown Endpoint


By default, all the endpoints are enabled in Spring Boot Application except /shutdown; this is, naturally, part of the Actuator endpoints.

默认情况下,除了/shutdown,所有的端点都在Spring Boot Application中被启用;这自然是Actuator端点的一部分。

Here’s the Maven dependency to set up these up:



And, if we want to also set up security support, we need:



Lastly, we enable the shutdown endpoint in file:



Note that we also have to expose any actuator endpoints that we want to use. In the example above, we’ve exposed all the actuator endpoints which will include the /shutdown endpoint.


To shut down the Spring Boot application, we simply call a POST method like this:

为了关闭Spring Boot应用程序,我们只需像这样调用一个POST方法

curl -X POST localhost:port/actuator/shutdown

In this call, the port represents the actuator port.


3. Close Application Context


We can also call the close() method directly using the application context.


Let’s start with an example of creating a context and closing it:


ConfigurableApplicationContext ctx = new 
System.out.println("Spring Boot application started");

This destroys all the beans, releases the locks, then closes the bean factory. To verify the application shutdown, we use the Spring’s standard lifecycle callback with @PreDestroy annotation:


public class TerminateBean {

    public void onDestroy() throws Exception {
        System.out.println("Spring Container is destroyed!");

We also have to add a bean of this type:


public class ShutdownConfig {

    public TerminateBean getTerminateBean() {
        return new TerminateBean();

Here’s the output after running this example:


Spring Boot application started
Closing AnnotationConfigApplicationContext@39b43d60
DefaultLifecycleProcessor - Stopping beans in phase 0
Unregistering JMX-exposed beans on shutdown
Spring Container is destroyed!

The important thing here to keep in mind: while closing the application context, the parent context isn’t affected due to separate lifecycles.


3.1. Close the Current Application Context


In the example above, we created a child application context, then used the close() method to destroy it.


If we want to close the current context, one solution is to simply call the actuator /shutdown endpoint.


However, we can also create our own custom endpoint:


public class ShutdownController implements ApplicationContextAware {
    private ApplicationContext context;
    public void shutdownContext() {
        ((ConfigurableApplicationContext) context).close();

    public void setApplicationContext(ApplicationContext ctx) throws BeansException {
        this.context = ctx;

Here, we’ve added a controller that implements the ApplicationContextAware interface and overrides the setter method to obtain the current application context. Then, in a mapping method, we’re simply calling the close() method.


We can then call our new endpoint to shut down the current context:


curl -X POST localhost:port/shutdownContext

Of course, if you add an endpoint like this in a real-life application, you’ll want to secure it as well.


4. Exit SpringApplication


SpringApplication registers a shutdown hook with the JVM to make sure the application exits appropriately.


Beans may implement the ExitCodeGenerator interface to return a specific error code:


ConfigurableApplicationContext ctx = new SpringApplicationBuilder(Application.class)

int exitCode = SpringApplication.exit(ctx, new ExitCodeGenerator() {
public int getExitCode() {
        // return the error code
        return 0;


The same code with the application of Java 8 lambdas:

同样的代码,应用了Java 8的lambdas。

SpringApplication.exit(ctx, () -> 0);

After calling the System.exit(exitCode), the program terminates with a 0 return code:


Process finished with exit code 0

5. Kill the App Process


Finally, we can also shut down a Spring Boot Application from outside the application by using a bash script. Our first step for this option is to have the application context write it’s PID into a file:

最后,我们还可以通过使用bash脚本从应用程序外部关闭Spring Boot应用程序。这个选项的第一步是让应用程序的上下文把它的PID写进一个文件。

SpringApplicationBuilder app = new SpringApplicationBuilder(Application.class)
  .web(WebApplicationType.NONE); ApplicationPidFileWriter("./bin/"));;

Next, create a shutdown.bat file with the following content:


kill $(cat ./bin/

The execution of shutdown.bat extracts the Process ID from the file and uses the kill command to terminate the Boot application.


6. Conclusion


In this quick write-up, we’ve covered few simple methods that can be used to shut down a running Spring Boot Application.

在这篇简短的文章中,我们已经介绍了一些简单的方法,可以用来关闭正在运行的Spring Boot应用程序。

While it’s up to the developer to choose an appropriate a method; all of these methods should be used by design and on purpose.


For example, .exit() is preferred when we need to pass an error code to another environment, say JVM for further actions. Using Application PID gives more flexibility, as we can also start or restart the application with the use of bash script.

例如,当我们需要将错误代码传递给另一个环境时,例如JVM,以便采取进一步行动,.exit()是首选。使用 Application PID可以提供更多的灵活性,因为我们也可以通过使用bash脚本来启动或重新启动应用程序

Finally, /shutdown is here to make it possible to terminate the applications externally via HTTP. For all the other cases .close() will work perfectly.


As usual, the complete code for this article is available over on the GitHub project.