How to Install Maven on Windows, Linux, and Mac – 如何在Windows、Linux和Mac上安装Maven

最后修改: 2016年 12月 19日

1. Overview


Simply put, Maven is a command-line tool for building and managing any Java-based project.


The Maven Project provides a simple ZIP file containing a precompiled version of Maven for our convenience. There is no installer. It’s up to us to set up our prerequisites and environment to run Maven.


The installation of Apache Maven is a simple process of extracting the archive followed by configuring Maven such that the mvn executable is available in the OS classpath.

安装Apache Maven是一个简单的过程,先解压存档,然后配置Maven,使mvn可执行文件在操作系统classpath中可用。

1.1. Prerequisites


Maven is written in Java. So, to run Maven, we need a system that has Java installed and configured properly. We can download an OS-compatible Java JDK from Oracle’s download site, for example.  It’s recommended to install it to a pathname without spaces.

Maven是用Java编写的。因此,要运行Maven,我们需要一个已经安装并正确配置了Java的系统。例如,我们可以从Oracle的下载网站下载一个与操作系统兼容的Java JDK。 建议将其安装到不含空格的路径名下。

Once Java is installed, we need to ensure that the commands from the Java JDK are in our PATH environment variable.

一旦Java安装完毕,我们需要确保Java JDK的命令在我们的PATH环境变量中。

To do so, we will run the command below to get the currently installed version info:


java -version

2. Installing Maven on Windows


To install Maven on Windows, we head over to the Apache Maven site to download the latest version and select the Maven zip file, for example,

要在Windows上安装Maven,我们到Apache Maven网站下载最新版本,并选择Maven压缩文件,例如,

Then, we unzip it to the folder where we want Maven to live.


2.1. Adding Maven to the Environment Path


We add both M2_HOME and MAVEN_HOME variables to the Windows environment using system properties and point them to our Maven folder.


Then, we update the PATH variable by appending the Maven bin folder — %M2_HOME%\bin — so that we can run the Maven command everywhere.

然后,我们更新PATH变量,加入Mavenbin文件夹–%M2_HOME%/bin –,这样我们就可以在任何地方运行Maven命令。

To verify it, we run:


mvn -version

The command above should display the Maven version, the Java version, and the operating system information. That’s it. We’ve set up Maven on our Windows system.


3. Installing Maven on Linux


To install Maven on the Linux operating system, we download the latest version from the Apache Maven site and select the Maven binary tar.gz file, for example, apache-maven-3.8.4-bin.tar.gz.

要在Linux操作系统上安装Maven,我们从Apache Maven网站下载最新版本,并选择Maven二进制tar.gz文件,例如,apache-maven-3.8.4-bin.tar.gz

Redhat, Ubuntu, and many other Linux distribution are using the BASH as their default shell. In the below section, we will be using bash commands.


First, let’s create a location for Maven:


$ mkdir -p /usr/local/apache-maven/apache-maven-3.8.4

Then, we extract the archive to our Maven location:


$ tar -xvf apache-maven-3.8.4-bin.tar.gz -C /usr/local/apache-maven/apache-maven-3.8.4

3.1. Adding Maven to the Environment Path


We open the command terminal and edit the .bashrc file using the below command:


$ nano ~/.bashrc

Next, let’s add Maven-specific lines to the file:


export M2_HOME=/usr/local/apache-maven/apache-maven-3.8.4 
export M2=$M2_HOME/bin 
export MAVEN_OPTS=-Xms256m -Xmx512m 
export PATH=$M2:$PATH

Once we save the file, we can reload the environment configuration without restarting:


$ source ~/.bashrc

Finally, we can verify if Maven has been added:


$ mvn -version

The output should be similar to the below:


Apache Maven 3.8.4 (81a9f75f19aa7275152c262bcea1a77223b93445; 2021-01-07T15:30:30+01:29)
Maven home: /usr/local/apache-maven/apache-maven-3.8.4

Java version: 1.8.0_75, vendor: Oracle Corporation

Java home: /usr/local/java-current/jdk1.8.0_75/jre

We have successfully installed Maven on our Linux system.


3.2. Installing Maven on Ubuntu


In a terminal, we run apt-cache search maven to get all the available Maven packages:

在终端,我们运行apt-cache search maven来获取所有可用的Maven包。

$ apt-cache search maven
libxmlbeans-maven-plugin-java-doc - Documentation for Maven XMLBeans Plugin
maven - Java software project management and comprehension tool
maven-debian-helper - Helper tools for building Debian packages with Maven
maven2 - Java software project management and comprehension tool

The Maven package always comes with the latest Apache Maven.

Maven包总是带有最新的Apache Maven。

We run the command sudo apt-get install maven to install the latest Maven:

我们运行sudo apt-get install maven命令来安装最新的Maven。

$ sudo apt-get install maven

This will take a few minutes to download. Once downloaded, we can run the mvn -version to verify our installation.

这将需要几分钟的时间来下载。一旦下载,我们可以运行mvn -version来验证我们的安装。

4. Installing Maven on Mac OS X

4.在Mac OS X上安装Maven

To install Maven on Mac OS X operating system, we download the latest version from the Apache Maven site and select the Maven binary tar.gz file, for example, apache-maven-3.8.4-bin.tar.gz.

要在Mac OS X操作系统上安装Maven,我们从Apache Maven网站下载最新版本,并选择Maven二进制tar.gz文件,例如,apache-maven-3.8.4-bin.tar.gz

Then we extract the archive to our desired location.


4.1. Adding Maven to the Environment Path


First, let’s open the terminal and switch to the directory where the files were extracted to and then log in as superuser.


Second, we need to remove the tar.gz archive:


rm Downloads/apache-maven*bin.tar.gz

Third, we have to fix the permissions and switch the Maven contents:


chown -R root:wheel Downloads/apache-maven* 
mv Downloads/apache-maven* /opt/apache-maven

Then, let’s archive the Admin session and add Maven binaries to the path and append:


nano $HOME/.profile 
export PATH=$PATH:/opt/apache-maven/bin

Finally, we use Ctrl+x to save and exit from nano.


To load the new setup, let’s run:



Now, we test if Maven is installed successfully using the command below:


mvn -version

We are now ready to use Maven on our Mac OS X.

现在我们已经准备好在Mac OS X上使用Maven了。

4.2. Adding Maven to the Environment Path for macOS Catalina or Higher

4.2.在macOS Catalina或更高版本的环境路径中添加Maven

macOS is abandoning the Bourne-Again Shell (bash), the command interpreter for most GNU / Linux distributions, in favor of the Z shell (zsh). This shell can be thought of as an extended version of bash.

macOS正在放弃Bourne-Again Shell(bash),这是大多数GNU/Linux发行版的命令解释器,而支持Z shell(zsh)。这个shell可以被认为是bash的一个扩展版本。

Zsh sets itself apart with its advanced command completion mechanism, typo correction, and even feature-adding module system.


In the case of macOS Catalina or a higher version where the default shell is zsh, we have to append to a different file instead:

如果是macOS Catalina或更高版本的默认shell是zsh,我们必须附加到一个不同的文件。

nano ~/.zshenv  
export PATH=$PATH:/opt/apache-maven/bin

To reload the environment, we need to issue:


source ~/.zshenv 

The rest of the operations remain the same.


4.3. HighSierra Compatibility


For HighSierra, we’ll need to additionally add Maven binaries to the path and append:


nano $HOME/.bashrc
export PATH=$PATH:/opt/apache-maven/bin

We use Ctrl+x to save and exit from nano. Then we run bash to load the new setup.


5. Conclusion


In this article, we learned how to install Maven for development on the major operating systems.


To learn how to get started with Spring and Maven, check out the tutorial here.